The water pollution has evolved into a major problem and can not be neglected anymore. Waterborne diseases have killed more lives than any other diseases and a report published by WHO in 2017 revealed that almost 29% of the global population lacked access to safe and clean drinking water. The constant increase in the number of industries and the discharge of wastewater from the industries has not favored the cause either. It has become mandatory for the industries and manufacturing units of various sectors to install water treatment system. Several water purification companies have extended their services to wastewater management.
The textbook definition of wastewater management is to treat the wastewater that has become unusable and convert it into a least harmful state that can be discharged back into the environment in a way it does not affect the environment. The discharged water can also be applied for various purposes such as washing, using in the toilet, etc…
The sewage treatment is often interchanged with wastewater treatment but there is a thin line differentiating them both. Sewage waste is a more specific term and only refers to the solid wastes that are present in the wastewater while wastewater collectively refers to all toxic substances present in them. There are different types of sewage treatment plants and sewage treatment methods to treat the wastes present in the water before discharging it back to the environment.
Types of wastewater treatment system
The wastewater treatment methods can be broadly classified into two types, physical/chemical treatment, and the biological treatment.
Physical/Chemical treatment plant
This is used as the primary water treatment system by industries. In this, a combination of chemical agents and physical techniques such as filtration, sedimentation are used to treat the water to remove the toxic wastes before discharging it back to the environment.
Biological treatment plant
This involves the use of bacteria and other organic substances to break down the toxic wastewater and making it the least harmful or completely nullifying the toxic levels. The treated water is collected and is employed for other works.
Working of a wastewater treatment system
The water purification companies can help you customize the wastewater treatment system depending upon the type of toxic wastes that are present in the wastewater. Several different techniques are combined and employed together to make it more effective. The process of water treatment system is as follows
Collection of wastewater
The first and foremost step in the wastewater treatment is to collect the wastewater that is secreted and connecting it to a common central system. It should be noted that the collection of the wastewater should be done under hygienic conditions. Proper monitoring should be done to make sure there are no leakage in pipes that carry wastewater and the employees that are working under such conditions should follow safety precautions to remain immune to any infections.
Screening and Odour control
In this step, chemical agents are employed to remove the bad odor the wastewater emits to create a foul-free working environment. The wastewater is then screened to remove large particles the wastewater carries.
The wastewater is then poured into large cylinders and is allowed to settle for few hours without being disturbed. The larger particles and wastes settle down at the bottom of the cylinder which is then removed.
Secondary treatment/ Aeration
The sedimented water is then passed through smaller tanks and sludge is added to water. The tank is aerated by passing air which favors the growth of bacteria and other microorganisms. The microorganisms react with other substances and this process leads to the formation of larger particles that settle down at the bottom.
The water is then allowed to pass through digestion tanks where it is heated to a preset temperature and the sludge is allowed to digest. Once the optimum temperature is reached, the sludge decomposes and biogas mainly methane is produced that can be employed for various uses. The remaining sludge is again removed by the process of sedimentation and the sludge can be used for agricultural purposes.
This is the last and final step in the water treatment process where the treated water is inspected for any contamination. The water is then treated with disinfecting agents to make sure that it is safe to be reused again.
The wastewater treatment has to be an integral part of any industry or manufacturing unit and has a number of benefits, the first and foremost being the prevention of water pollution. It is everyone’s duty to make sure the environment is free from pollution and is safe for the sustainability of life itself.